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Using git bisect

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The git-bisect command can be used to narrow down the point at which a bug was introduced. Pinpointing the fault to a single commit allows the linuxwacom developers to research the change in detail to understand (and hopefully fix) its cause.

To perform a git bisect, you must first clone a copy of the relevant code and install any build dependencies. See the pages on xf86-input-wacom, input-wacom, or libwacom for details.

$ git clone <URL>
$ cd <directory>
$ git bisect start


Running the Bisect

The first step is to find two commits: a "bad" commit which exhibits the bug and a "good" commit which does not. We'll start with building and testing the master branch, just to be sure that the bug has not already been fixed. Use the following commands to build and install/load the updated code:

For input-wacom:

$ ./autogen.sh
$ make clean
$ rm -f */wacom.ko
$ make
$ sudo modprobe -r wacom
$ sudo insmod */wacom.ko

For xf86-input-wacom:

$ ./autogen.sh --prefix=<prefix> --libdir=<libdir>
$ make
$ sudo make install
[logout / login]

Once the updated code is running, thoroughly test to see if the bug is present or not. If the bug isn't present, then you can stop testing at this point -- the bug has already been fixed and should be available in the next release. If, however, the bug is present, you will need to run git bisect bad to let git know that this version has issues.

The next step is to find a "good" version of the code. Repeatedly run git checkout <version> and build/test the driver with earlier and earlier releases. Be sure to run git bisect bad if your tests indicate the bug is present. If for some reason you are unable to test a particular version (e.g. because a different bug prevents you from testing), you should run git bisect skip. Once you find a version which does not have the bug, you need to run git bisect good. At this point, you should see a message like the following:

Bisecting: 250 revisions left to test after this (roughly 8 steps)
[3e50218b3e1424efe3f980a94aa5e9aed3c2bc47] HID: wacom: generic: Add support for vendor-defined "Sense" usage

This indicates that git can now begin zeroing in on the faulty commit. It will have automatically checked out a new version that could have possibly introduced the bug. Build and test this driver, and then use git bisect bad or git bisect good or git bisect skip as appropriate. Each time you run one of the git bisect commands, git will checkout a new version. The estimated number of steps remaining is listed each time.


Finishing the Bisect

At some point, instead of reporting back that there are more revisions left to test, the git bisect will end. When this happens, one of two things can happen. If you never had to skip a commit, you should see a message stating exactly which commit is buggy:

4e65a8de49526bf794563ec38bd51e590225d8a0 is the first bad commit
commit 4e65a8de49526bf794563ec38bd51e590225d8a0
Author: Jason Gerecke <killertofu@gmail.com>
Date:   Mon Aug 3 10:18:10 2015 -0700

    HID: wacom: Simplify 'wacom_pl_irq'
    
    Unlike other IRQ functions, 'wacom_pl_irq' uses the second element of
    the 'tool' array to store information about its single pen. This makes
    the function more difficult to understand (since it doesn't follow the
    general pattern of other IRQ functions) and prevents the possibility of
    refactoring how pen state is stored.
    
    This patch rewrites 'wacom_pl_irq' to follow the usual IRQ conventions,
    including storing tool type in 'tool[0]' and implicitly tracking prox
    with the 'id[0]' variable.
    
    Signed-off-by: Jason Gerecke <jason.gerecke@wacom.com>
    Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <jkosina@suse.cz>
    [jason.gerecke@wacom.com: Imported into input-wacom repository (025bcc1)]
    Signed-off-by: Jason Gerecke <jason.gerecke@wacom.com>

If you had to skip one or more commits, however, git will likely report back a message like the following:

There are only 'skip'ped commits left to test.
The first bad commit could be any of:
bb2d87217207d8127fd73d7f0a92f482320b85e8
4dce7932133ec63acfb547c5e0f4f9d4d68ec2ec
We cannot bisect more!

In either case, while these final messages are helpful, it is even more useful to receive a full log of the git bisect process. This will include information about exactly which commits you tested and wether your marked them as bad, good, or skip. Once the bisection process has ended, please run the following and provide us with a copy of the output:

$ git bisect log

Afterwards, it is a good idea to reset your environment in case you need to run a bisection again later. To do this, run git bisect reset.


Tips & Tricks

Sometimes you may accidentally mark a good commit as bad or skip a commit you didn't intend. If you end up running the wrong command, it is possible to recover by first running git bisect log > bisect.log and then editing the generated bisect.log file to match what you had intended. Finally, run git bisect reset && git bisect replay bisect.log to apply the fix. Once these commands have been run you can continue with building and testing as normal.

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